PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Understanding and Teaching the Pronunciation of English ENGLISH FILE Pre-intermediate Teacher's Book. 'The Sound of English' is a fully interactive pdf with the following features: book joint loaf of beef bread poems wine shoes milk flowers lamb crisps. In this book we are concerned with differences in pronunciation. Some words are spoken differently by different speakers of English, for instance either, garage.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
American English and accent reduction. This book presents the 'big picture' of American English pronunciation as I see it. It is broad, but not deep. I look forward . for English. The book Cambridge pronunciation in use intermediate . to sentence. diadurchgakiddto.gq pdf. PDF | The Handbook of English Pronunciation is a collection of 28 chapters with A single book that tries to meet the needs of both groups is a.
After finishing the first part of this book, you will have learned more than such words. In the second part of this book, you will learn about the most common patterns of errors in English. If you are eager to start improving your pronunciation, just skip to the next section. What is it that makes English so hard for foreigners to learn?
I be- lieve that it is a combination of its spelling and pronunciation. Most languages have a regulatory body which issues spelling reforms as the pronunciation of the language develops. By the time these dictionaries were written during the 19 th cen- tury , English pronunciation had already been changing for several hundred years.
This was unfortunately not reflected by the authors of the dictionaries, and, in addition to that, English pronunciation has diverged even further from its spelling since the first editions of these dictionaries were written. As a result, English spelling has be- come very irregular. This poses a much greater problem to learners of English than to native speakers, because native speakers know how to pronounce words; they just have to be able to spell them correctly, which is not such a big problem nowadays when anyone can use a spell checker.
Learners of English, on the contrary, meet most of their vocabu- lary in the written form first. It is often possible and even appropri- ate to derive the meaning of a new word from the context, but in- stead of looking up the correct pronunciation in a dictionary, learners tend to guess what the pronunciation might be according to their experience and then use this pronunciation internally when thinking about the word.
Unfortunately, such guesses are wrong most of the time. Nevertheless, these are all patterns that can be learned and you will do so in Part III of this book , because all the differ- ences are indicated in spelling in quite a regular way.
In addition to the problems we have already mentioned, there is no indication of stress placement in English whatsoever. In most lan- guages, stress placement is governed by relatively simple rules; in English, it is almost completely irregular apart from a few hard-to- follow patterns , and words can even change their meaning depend- ing on stress position.
Also, pronunciation of vowels usually changes depending on whether they are stressed. In terms of vocabulary, English is like a patchwork. As a res- ult, there are often different words to express the same idea.
This process results in an amount of vocabulary that is somewhat larger than necessary. This is not a bad thing per se; it adds some ex- pressive power to English and makes it a good starting point for learning other European languages. In combination with English pronunciation and spelling problems, this can, however, be a huge nuisance to learners, especially since English spelling of such words usually reflects the original spelling in the language of origin, not its contemporary English pronunciation.
Even though learning English in general requires a substantial amount of time and dedication, I believe that after you finish read- ing this book, you should be able to cope at least with all the prob- lems mentioned above.
In school, I did not study how to teach English, or pronunciation, or any foreign language. I did not study linguistics. I did not study how to teach anybody anything.
As I became interested in how Americans speak, and how to teach that, while living in Germany, I came to realize that what I studied was actually very significant. What I have developed in Rachels English and this book comes directly from those fields of study: from singing, increased body and voice awareness, connection to rhythm and melody, a keen ear and the ability to imitate. From applied mathematics and computer science: a linear and modular mind, able to break down my vocal awareness into small, teachable chunks.
Developing Rachels English, from the beginning, has been about experience and first-hand investigation more than book learning. This book is written only to support practical experience, perhaps in ways that are sometimes unconventional. I hope something in it will help you communicate more effectively and confidently in English.
What are the most important things about this book?
Learning pronunciation concepts together. Most books and resources will teach sounds separate from 4 rhythm and intonation. But we never use sounds by themselves. They are always a part of words and sentences, where we cannot ignore rhythm and intonation.
So when you learn a sound in this book, youll learn what it sounds like in stressed and unstressed syllables.
Youll always be addressing the overall character, no matter what detail youre learning. If your device does not display the photos well, consider using an alternative.
These photos will help you understand whats going on inside the mouth for the sounds of American English. Each photo shows: 1.
The throat. It should stay open and relaxed most of the time, and the neck muscles too. The tongue.
This amazing muscular structure can flip up, down, stick way outwe want this muscle to be relaxed so it can move easily. The teeth. I draw in the top and bottom front teeth, and the top teeth on the far side of the face.
The hard and soft palate. The hard palate, or roof of the mouth, is in the front half of the mouth, and the soft palate is back towards the throat. The soft palate closes by lifting for all sounds in American English except for three consonant sounds: N [n], M [m], and NG . This is means American English has no nasal vowels. These are the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is very important to know from the beginning that English is not a phonetic language.
This means there is not a direct relationship between the letters and the sounds.
You cant look at a word and know how to pronounce it; you cant hear a word and know how to spell it. One letter does not correspond to one sound. For example, the letter A is pronounced differently in these three words: exact [gzct] here, it is the  vowel father [f ] here, it is the  vowel about [bat] here, it is the  vowel For many more examples, check out the Sound Chart Appendix.
For people whose native language is phonetic, this is very annoying. I apologize on behalf of the English language!
It certainly makes it harder to learn. Even native speakers of English sometimes have to look up the pronunciation or spelling of a word. Rather than relying on a letter to represent a sound, experts have come up with a unique symbol for each sound. You will see me use these symbols in my videos and this book. To introduce yourself to these symbols, watch these videos: Video 0.
Pay special attention to the IPA symbol for each sound.
Quiz yourself in this video. There are some cases in American English where the IPA symbol used does not represent the way Americans speak, but dont worry. Youll learn about these special cases in this book. Additionally, you can look up the same word in several dictionaries and not see the same IPA transcription. This is due to a difference of opinion. Dont panic. Pick the one that makes the most sense to you, or that is in your favorite dictionary.
I use these symbols [ ] to let you know that what youre seeing is IPA. I will stress again: In general, you cannot look at a written word and know how to pronounce it based on the letters.